In the primitive age, man live a nomadic life and roamed around in search of food and shelter. Gradually, he started cultivating food and tried to settle at a fixed palce. With the passage of time, the concept of village came up now, man lived a settled life and pursued other occupation as he now lived in a community.
Rural livelihoods in india
Almost seventy per cent of our population lives in villages. People who live in village are called rural people. Various types of people live in a village and do many kinds of works to earn their livelihood.
The primary occupation of the villagers is agriculture, fishing, dairying, and animal husbandry. However, the main occupation of the rural people is agriculture.
Depending upon the size of their land holding, farmers can be grouped as big farmers, middle farmers, samll farmers and landless farmers. Big farmers usually have large areas of land under cultivation. They use modern methods of agriculture like high quality seeds, fertilizers, and modern agriculture implements.
They produce enough crops and a large part of it is sold in the market, after fulfilling their own needs. Many of them have other income also such as from Business and from profession.
The second category consists of the middle class farmers. They have their own land between 2to5 hectares. They themselves, along with their families work in their farms and grow crops. Usually they adopt old methods of farming and equipments. They produce barely enough crops to sustain their families throughout the year.
The third group of the farmers is of small farmers. Their income from farming is so low that they themselves or their family members are compelled to work as agriculture labourers in the fields of the big or middle class farmers. Something they even leave their villages and go to the nearby towns to earn their livelihood.
Rural and Urban livelihoods in India full information with details
Urban livelihoods in india
Urban livelihoods is quite apart to that of rural livelihoods. The reason behind it is that the Urban surrounding are quite different from the rural ones.
- Primary occupation
- Secondary occucpation
- Tertiary occupation
Moreover the Urban population is heterogeneous in nature because Urban people come from different parts of the country. In Urban area’s people are either self employed or employed in government offices, multinational companies, banks, hospital, educational institute, or trading and business concerns. Occupation in Urban areas can broadly be divided into the following three main category.
Livelihood in cities and big towns
In cities and towns, shopkeeper, businessman, various professional such as doctors, teachers, clerks, caterers, interior decorators obtain licence or permission from the government to do business. Many people are engaged in these shops and industries.
There are big factories and industries in the outskirts of many cities and big towns. They provide employment to thousands of worker’s, supervisor and officer. Their service are permanent and cannot be terminated easily.
They enjoy certain benefits and facilities like pension, gratuity, medical and insurance facilities and paid annual leave’s etc
A large number of people are engaged in government jobs. They help in the running of the day to day administration. The central government employees are appointed either by the union public service commission (UPSC) or by various central authorities.
Casual workers and other jobs
Many people work as casual workers in various public and private department. They are temporary workers and get works as and when their service are required. They have no job securities and their services can be terminated at the discretion of the employer.
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