The urban local government
There are three chief unit of local government in cities and town. They are nagar Panchayat, municipal council or municipality and municipal corporation. While the big cities like delhi, mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai have municipal corporation. Other smaller cities and towns have nagar Panchayat and municipal council or municipality http://teachtechnical.com/2019/03/02/urban-local-government-in-india/ (opens in a new tab)
Urban Local Government In India
Large town, which are gradually transformation into cities, have a nagar Panchayat. The members of a nagar Panchayat are elected through and election. The registered votes of the area elect their representative. The minimum age limit for contesting a nagar Panchayat election is 21 years. The nagar Panchayat provide facilities and amenities, like water supply health care, sanitation, parks public libraries, and such other things. They also maintain record births and deaths. They need a lot of money to perform all these activities. Their main source of earning is the grant they receive from the government and the taxes like property tax, sale tax, etc. http://teachtechnical.com/2019/03/02/types-of-local-government-in-india/
Municipality or municipal council
The municipality or the municipal Committee is the most common form of local bodies in urban areas. A municipality or a municipal Committee is constituted in smaller towns and cities. Generally, a municipality is formed in cities or town having a population of more than two lakhs.
The local bodies of big cities like Delhi, mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and patna whose population is more than ten lakhs are called municipal corporation. https://wp.me/pawmDN-66
Difference between a municipal corporation and a municipality
- Its also called nagar nigam.
- The number of elected member. depend upon the population.
- They are established in big cities.
- Their resources are vast.
- They are directly linked with the state government
- It is also called municipality.
- The number is mostly restricted between 15 and 16.
- Their resources are limited.
- They are found in small cities
- Usually, they deal with the state government through the district admini stration.
Urban Local Government In India
Function of the local urban bodies
Public health – It include establishment and running of hospital, health centres, dispensaries etc. It also include vaccination against epidemic diseases like cholera, samll pox tec. The local bodies also ensure proper drainage, sanitation and disposal of garbage generated in the cities. https://wp.me/pawmDN-60
Public utility service – it include maintenance of roads and street plantation of tree, supply of clean drinking water, supply of electricity for homes and industries, lighting of street and arrangement of local transport, etc.
Public Education – They establish, run and maintain school, public libraries, and adult education centres etc. They ensure free primary education for the weaker section and provide mid -day meal, free books and stationary for the poor children.
The main optional function of these local bodies are as follows
- To provide cheap and efficient local transport facilities within the municipal limits.
- To provide public toilet, bathroom and bathing places.
- To develop and maintain parks and garden.
- To maintain zoo, museum, public libraries etc.
- To construct and maintain orphanage night shelters, children homes, creches and rest houses.
Sources of revenue
The main sources of income of the municipal bodies.
- Taxes on property like, house, shops land and property, etc.
- Toll tax and octroi duty.
- Taxes on vehicu, etc.
- Education tax to support educational activities.
- Taxes on business and profession.
- Taxes on water and electricity. Etc